A Beginner’s Guide To Currency Trading (Forex Trading 101)

Stock market Trading Platform
Stock market Trading Platform

….  The stock market currency trading, also known as the equity market,is where stocks or shares of publicly traded companies.  Are bought and sold.  It is a crucial component of the global financial system, and the fluctuations in the stock market. Can have significant impacts on the economy, from the value of pensions to the cost of goods and services.

The foreign exchange market ,known as the forex market, is the international market for exchanging foreign currencies. It is the world’s largest financial market and it can greatly influence the price of daily-use items.

Foreign exchange or Forex is defined as the exchange of currencies, i.e. The changing of one currency into another. Tourism, commercial reasons, and international trade are some of the important avenues where foreign exchange plays a crucial role. If you have bought any foreign-made goods or exchanged currencies for travelling abroad, you have taken part in forex trading.

What Is Forex Trading? 

Forex trading involves buying and selling one currency for another, similar to exchanging money while traveling abroad. The exchange rate between currencies constantly fluctuates based on market forces of supply and demand. The foreign exchange market facilitates currency trading and operates globally, 24 hours a day, Monday through Friday.

Unlike stocks, forex trading is conducted over the counter (OTC), without a physical exchange. A network of banks and financial institutions oversees the market. Rather than a central exchange like the New York Stock Exchange.

Institutional traders, including bank employees, fund managers, and multinational corporations, are responsible for the majority of trading activity in. The forex market. They may speculate on or hedge against future exchange rate fluctuations, without the intention of physically owning the currencies themselves.

For example, a forex trader may buy U.S. dollars and sell euros if they anticipate the dollar’s value to increase and want to buy more euros in the future. Additionally, an American company with operations in India could use the forex market as a hedge against a potential weakening of the rupee, which would decrease the value of their earned income.

Detailed below are some of the crucial terms associated with forex trading. Knowing these terms would make it easier for you to participate in the forex market:

Types of Markets 

The foreign exchange market is mainly traded through three markets, which are spot, forwards, and futures. The spot market is the biggest among them as it is the underlying asset on which the forwards and futures markets depend. Typically, when people discuss the forex market, they are referring to the spot market.

However, companies or financial institutions that require hedging of their foreign exchange risks at a specific future date tend to prefer forwards and futures markets. These markets are more popular among such entities.

Spot market:  

The spot market involves the buying and selling of currencies based on their trading price, which is determined by supply and demand and is influenced by factors such as current interest rates, economic performance, geopolitical sentiment, and price speculation. A finalized transaction in the spot market is referred to as a spot deal.

It is a bilateral agreement in which one party delivers an agreed-upon amount of currency to the counterparty and receives a specified amount of another currency at the agreed-upon exchange rate value. The settlement for a closed position is in cash.

Although the spot market is typically associated with transactions in the present, rather than in the future, it takes two days for these trades to settle.

Forwards and future markets   

  • In the forwards and futures markets, a forward contract is a private agreement between two parties to purchase a currency at a predetermined price on a future date in the OTC markets. The contracts are bought and sold OTC between two parties who establish the terms of the agreement between themselves.
  • In contrast, a futures contract is a standardized agreement between two parties to take delivery of a currency at a predetermined price on a future date. Futures are traded on exchanges rather than otc in the futures market, futures contracts are purchased and sold based on a standard size and settlement date on public. Commodities markets like the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).  Futures contracts have specific details, including the number of units being traded, delivery and settlement dates, and minimum price increments that cannot be modified. The exchange acts as a counterparty to the trader, providing clearance and settlement services.

Both forwards and futures contracts are legally binding agreements and are typically settled for cash at the exchange upon expiration. However, contracts can also be bought and sold before their expiration date. These markets can provide a safeguard against risk when trading currencies.

Apart from forwards and futures, options contracts on specific currency pairs are also traded. Forex options offer holders the right, but not the obligation, to engage in a forex trade at a future date.

How forex trading works? 

The Forex Market.  

The forex market is decentralized, meaning that it operates through a network of banks and brokers rather than a central exchange. As a result, it enables round-the-clock trading and effective price discovery.

Forex Market Participants   

The foreign exchange market comprises a variety of participants, including central banks, commercial banks, institutional investors, retail investors, and currency speculators. These participants have distinct motives for trading forex and use diverse strategies to navigate the market. Similarly, the stock market has a diverse range of participants with varying motives and investment styles.

Forex Trading Pairs  

In forex trading, pairs are made up of two currencies, such as the euro and the US dollar. Traders purchase one currency while selling another, intending to make a profit from the change in exchange rates between the two currencies.

How to buy and sell currency? 

In the world of forex trading, you have the option to purchase or sell currency either through a broker or directly from other participants in the market. If you decide to buy a currency, you are essentially placing a wager that its value will rise in comparison to the other currency you sold. Conversely, if you choose to sell a currency, you are betting that its value will decrease.

Forex Market Hours   

Due to its global network of banks and brokers, the forex market is open 24 hours a day, 5 days a week. This provides traders with the opportunity to engage in the market at any time and capitalize on market shifts and price changes.

How to Start Trading Forex? 

If you are interested in trading forex, there are some important steps to follow to get started:

Educate yourself: While forex trading is not overly complex, it does require specialized knowledge and a willingness to learn.

Open a brokerage account: To start trading, you will need to set up a forex trading account with a brokerage.

Develop a trading strategy: Although market movements can be difficult to predict, having a trading strategy can help you establish general guidelines and a roadmap for your trading.

Keep track of your trades: Once you start trading, it’s important to check your positions at the end of each day. Most trading software provides a daily accounting of trades, so make sure you have sufficient funds in your account to make future trades.

Manage your emotions: Forex trading can be an emotional rollercoaster, especially for beginners. It’s important to stay disciplined and close out your positions when necessary.

Forex terms to know 

Before engaging in forex trading, it’s important to understand the specific language used in the market. Here are some key terms to know:

Currency pair: Forex trades involve the exchange of one currency for another, known as a currency pair. While the majors are the most commonly traded, there are also exotics, which involve currencies of developing countries.

Pip: A pip is the smallest possible price change within a currency pair. Usually equal to 0.0001 due to forex prices being quoted out to at least four decimal places.

Bid-ask spread: Similar to the stock market, exchange rates in forex are determined. By the highest price buyers are willing to pay (the bid) and the lowest price sellers require to sell (the ask). The difference between these two prices is the bid-ask spread.

Lot: Forex is traded in lots, which is a standardized unit of currency. The typical lot size is 100,000 units of currency, but there is also micro (1,000) and mini (10,000) lots available for trading.

Leverage: Some traders may not have enough capital to execute a trade, which is where leverage comes in. It allows traders to borrow money to participate in the forex market without putting up the full amount of capital.

Margin: When trading with leverage, traders must put down a deposit, or margin, upfront to cover any potential losses.

Basic Forex Trading Strategies 

Long and short trades are the fundamental forms of forex trading. In a long trade, traders expect the currency price to rise and aim to profit from it. Conversely, a short trade involves betting that the currency pair’s price will decline. Forex traders can further optimize their trading approach by adopting technical analysis-based trading strategies, such as breakout and moving average methods. Depending on the duration and trading volume, these strategies can be classified into four categories:

  • Scalp trade involves holding positions for seconds or minutes with profits typically limited to a small number of pips.
  • Day trades are short-term trades in which positions are opened and closed on the same day, with a duration. Ranging from minutes to hours.
  • Swing trade is a strategy where traders hold positions for longer than a day, typically lasting for several days or weeks.
  • Position trade involves holding a currency for a prolonged period, lasting as long as several months or even years.

Are Forex Markets Volatile? 

The foreign exchange (forex) markets are highly liquid, making them less volatile than some other markets such as the stock market or real estate. However, the volatility of a currency is influenced by various factors, including political and economic developments within its country. Any significant events like payment defaults or trading imbalances with another currency can result in substantial volatility in the forex market.

Which currencies can you trade in? 

Currencies that have high liquidity are easily bought or sold in the market and tend to respond to. External factors with stable and predictable price movements. But the U.S. dollar, which is paired with six of the market’s seven most liquid currency pairs is the most widely traded currency globally. On the other hand, currencies with low liquidity cannot be traded in large quantities without significant market impact their price.

Pros and Cons of Trading Forex 


  • Boasts the highest daily trading volume of any market globally.
  • Open for trading 24/5.5.
  • Potential for fast growth in starting capital.
  • Follows mostly similar trading principles to traditional markets.
  • Relatively more decentralized than conventional stock or bond markets.


  • Forex trades can be very unstable due to leverage.
  • A leverage ratio of up to 50:1 is common.
  • Requires knowledge of economic indicators and fundamentals.
  • Less regulated than some other markets.
  • Lacks income-generating instruments.

The Bottom Line

Compared to other markets, day trading or swing trading with smaller amounts is easier in the forex market, making it. More accessible for traders with limited funds. On the other hand, long-term fundamentals-based trading or a carry trade can be profitable for traders with more funds and longer-term horizons. By focusing on understanding macroeconomic fundamentals that influence currency values and gaining experience with technical analysis, new forex traders can become more profitable.  Overall, knowledge and experience in the forex market can benefit traders just as they do in the stock market.

To sum up, the forex market, which deals with the exchange of foreign currencies, is the largest financial market in the world.  In India, both the SEBI and the RBI regulate forex trading. Trading of currencies offers multiple benefits to investors including large-volume trading, high liquidity, and low transaction costs.  In this blog, we have discussed the important terminologies and other basic details of forex trading, with the aim of making this topic easier for beginners.

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