The relatively popular manual reaping of maize is more often replaced by mechanical selection of combined harvesters, especially in tropical areas. Combine harvesters are machines which clean maize in one operation, threshing and pre-cleaning. Opt maize cutting machine.
The combine-harvesters are usually self-propelled and have cutting equipment, a threshing chamber consisting of a sweeping threshing drum (with teeth), a permanent counter-thresher, and paddle-placing equipment.
These machines are primarily built using two designs: Japanese and Western. Depending on the construction characteristics, the work capacity for these machines can vary from two to 15 hours per hectare (h / ha).
Some figures show that these machines yield between 350 and 800 kg (kg / h) of paddy an hour (and losses of grain less than 3%).
Western combine harvesters are large machines with four or five metre long cutting bars.
The work capacity of these equipment can be as much as 1 to 1.5 h / ha, for a total employment of about 2.7- 4.5 hours per hectare (h / ha), depending on their construction and conditions (well drained paddy-fields, adequate plots, etc.).
The use of combined harvesters provides a financial benefit for yields up to at least 70 hectares a year.
In addition to harvesters, maize is also harvested using side distribution rakes (or wind-runners).
Windsurfers are paddy cutting and unloading devices only on the side.
The theoretical capacity of these machines, whose workload ranges from 4 to 8 h / ha, has the advantage that the manual collection and binding of a paddy requires a broad workforce (100 to 200 in / ha).
Binders are paddy cuts, binds, and unloads at the same time. These machines have a cutting rod, and a collecting and binding system, even when pads are harvested (20 ° -30o to the ground angle). These machines often work well.
The work capability of these machines will vary from 5 to 20 h / ha, with grain losses less than 2 percent, depending on its construction features.
In any event, there are some issues associated with mechanical maize harvesting.
Maize can be harvested when the nutrient absorption process in the kernels is completed (physiological maturity).
The grain can be harvested manually (ears harvest) or mechanically (ears and grains harvested).
Mounting of hands
The moisture content of the grains can be as high as 37-38 per cent if maize achieves physiological maturity.
That is why maize is often pre-dried in the field before hand harvesting the ears.
The techniques for this procedure are generally:
Just as it grew, leave the ears all over the plant;
To promote ear exposure to the sun, cut down the tops of plants.
The methods for pre-drying in fields are very common but involve great risk of product loss , especially when the cultivated varieties are particularly sensitive to unfavourable weather (rain, moisture etc.) and plagues (insects , birds, rodents etc.).
The time taken in the fields during pre-drying often limits the opportunities for land use.
The ears are taken out of the stalk and no machinery is used in the processing of maize by hand.
The average lifetime of a manual harvest of maize ranges between 120 and 200 hours per hectare (15-25 days).
The ears, i.e. the ear shock, can be removed by hand or machine, at the same time as the harvest. The ear may be removed.
If this operation is done by hand, approximately 130 hours per hectare are necessary (around 16 days per man).
Hand harvesting of maize, if permitted by environment and labour availability, is deemed feasible for crops below 12 hectares.
The maize is harvested manually using maize pickers, maize shellers or combined harvesters.
While still used, they are only maize snappers which collect ears, with decreasing frequency.
Maize seeds are devices that gather and shake ears simultaneously. Therefore, they are equipped with pickers, shock tables and loading equipment. In general, one- or two-row maize picker can be tractor-drawn, worn or self-propelled, coupled with a trailer for the transport of picked ears.
These machinery ‘s work capability vary from 1.6 to 3.45 h / ha; 75-80% of the ears have been shocked completely; overall cereal losses are less than 4.5%.
To run these machines, two operators-a driver and a worker-are normally needed. For the harvesting of at least 2530 hectares of one-row maize plates a year, the minimum harvest is expected to be 30-60 hectares for two-row machinery.
Corn shellers look like corn pickers, but they have a shelling and cleaning system. These devices will pick, shake, shell and pre-clean the ears at the same time.
The single row or two-row maize shellers can be tracked or transported often with a trailer for the transportation of harvested grain.
But, since its performance is superior to that of the above-mentioned tractor-drawn versions, the self-engined type capable of harvesting two , three or four ranks is most widespread.
This form of machine has a similar working capacity with grain losses of less than 3 to 4 percent to that of maize pickers.
The combine harvester is another machine which can simultaneously harvest, shell and clean maize.
This machine is made from a wheat harvester which has changed the cutting system and the threshing system.
While these machines have a working capacity that depends upon harvest conditions, parcel size and form, for six row machines that process the whole system from 0.8 to 1.2 h / ha, and for six row machines which handle the ears, from 0.4 to 0.6 h / ha.
Overall loss of grain, typically caused by the cutting system, seldom exceeds 3%.
These machines typically need two operators.
For crops with a minimum of 40-75 hectares per year, the use of combine harvesters, like that of shellers, provides an economic advantage. Opt for cattle feed manufacturer.